Chrysanthemums, those glories of the autumn garden, have had a hard time recently.Although their star is now in the ascendant they have been out of fashion for decades and even suffered the ignominy of having their name changed.In 1995 botanists and taxonomists took the unprecedented decision that chrysanthemums should be reclassified and renamed as Dendranthema, Leucanthemum, Tanacetum or Nipponanthemum.
In the case of the larger firms the mark also has publicity value and shows the buyer that the object was made by a long-established firm with a reputation to uphold; such clear name- marks as Minton, Wedgwood, Royal Crown Derby and Royal Worcester are typical examples.
To the collector the mark has greater importance, for not only can he trace the manufacturer of any marked object, but he can also ascertain the approximate date of manufacture and in several cases the exact year of production, particularly in the case of 19th and 20th century wares from the leading firms which employed private dating systems.
With the increasing use of ceramic marks in the 19th century, a large proportion of English pottery and porcelain can be accurately identified and often dated.
'England':- Inclusion of the word 'England' in marks denotes a date after 1891, although some manufacturers (Thomas Elsmore & Sons for example) added the word slightly before this date. It was William Mc Kinley (the 25th president of the USA) who introduced the highly protectionist Mc Kinley Tariff Act of 1890 - this imposed tariffs on many imports (including pottery) in order to make it easier for the American manufacturers to sell their products.
Zadeh worked at Microsoft after graduating with a master's degree from University of Maryland in computer science, which is part of the University of Maryland College of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences.